API Authentication using Laravel 8 Sanctum Tutorial

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Inside this article we will one more important concept of laravel i.e REST api development in laravel 8 with Sanctum authentication. This will be step by step guide to create restful services from scratch.

We will create a secure set of API Authentication using Laravel 8 Sanctum. Sanctum is a laravel composer package.

What we will do in this article –

  • User Register API
  • Login API
  • User Profile API
  • Logout API

Above are the apis, we will create using sanctum authentication. This will be very interesting to learn.

  • To Learn API development in Laravel 8 Using Passport, Click here.
  • API development in Laravel 8 Using JWT Authentication, Click here.

Let’s get started.


Laravel Installation

We will create laravel project using composer. So, please make sure your system should have composer installed. If not, may be this article will help you to Install composer in system.

Here is the command to create a laravel project-

$ composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel blog

To start the development server of Laravel –

$ php artisan serve

URL: http://127.0.0.1:8000

Assuming laravel already installed inside your system.


Create Database & Connect

To create a database, either we can create via Manual tool of PhpMyadmin or by means of a mysql command.

CREATE DATABASE laravel_app;

To connect database with application, Open .env file from application root. Search for DB_ and update your details.

DB_CONNECTION=mysql
DB_HOST=127.0.0.1
DB_PORT=3306
DB_DATABASE=laravel_app
DB_USERNAME=root
DB_PASSWORD=root

Install And Configure Laravel Sanctum Auth

Laravel Sanctum provides a featherweight authentication system for SPAs (single page applications), mobile applications, and simple, token based APIs.

Open project into terminal and run this command.

$ composer require laravel/sanctum

Publish Sanctum Package

Run this command to publish package.

$ php artisan vendor:publish --provider="Laravel\Sanctum\SanctumServiceProvider"

This will create a sanctum.php file in the /config directory, as well as the necessary migration files in the /database/migrations directory.

Migrate Migration Files

$ php artisan migrate

Setup User Model

Open User.php from /app/Models and write this following code into it.

<?php

namespace App\Models;

use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\MustVerifyEmail;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;
use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Laravel\Sanctum\HasApiTokens;

class User extends Authenticatable
{
    use HasFactory, Notifiable, HasApiTokens;

    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name',
        'email',
        'password',
    ];

    /**
     * The attributes that should be hidden for arrays.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $hidden = [
        'password',
        'remember_token',
    ];

    /**
     * The attributes that should be cast to native types.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $casts = [
        'email_verified_at' => 'datetime',
    ];
}

Create Authentication Controller

Open project into terminal and run this artisan command.

$ php artisan make:controller AuthController

It will create a file AuthController.php at /app/Http/Controllers folder.

Open AuthController.php file and write this following code into it.

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Hash;
use App\Models\User;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Auth;

class AuthController extends Controller
{
    public function register(Request $request)
    {
        $validatedData = $request->validate([
            'name' => 'required|string|max:255',
            'email' => 'required|string|email|max:255|unique:users',
            'password' => 'required|string|confirmed|min:6',
        ]);

        $user = User::create([
            'name' => $validatedData['name'],
            'email' => $validatedData['email'],
            'password' => Hash::make($validatedData['password']),
        ]);

        $token = $user->createToken('auth_token')->plainTextToken;

        return response()->json([
            'message' => "User registered successfully",
            'access_token' => $token,
            'token_type' => 'Bearer',
        ]);
    }

    public function login(Request $request)
    {
        if (!Auth::attempt($request->only('email', 'password'))) {
            return response()->json([
                'message' => 'Invalid login details'
            ], 401);
        }

        $user = User::where('email', $request['email'])->firstOrFail();

        $token = $user->createToken('auth_token')->plainTextToken;

        return response()->json([
            'access_token' => $token,
            'token_type' => 'Bearer',
            'message' => "User logged in successfully",
        ]);
    }

    public function profile(Request $request)
    {
        return $request->user();
    }

    public function logout(Request $request)
    {
        auth()->user()->tokens()->delete();
        return response()->json(['message' => 'User successfully signed out']);
    }
}

Update RouteServiceProvider File

Open RouteServiceProvider.php from /app/Providers folder. Uncomment this line from file.

protected $namespace = 'App\\Http\\Controllers';

Create Authentication Routes

Open api.php from /routes folder.

# Add to header
use App\Http\Controllers\AuthController;

Route::post('register', [AuthController::class, 'register']);
Route::post('login', [AuthController::class, 'login']);

Route::group(['middleware' => ['auth:sanctum']], function () {
    Route::post('profile', [AuthController::class, 'profile']);
    Route::post('logout', [AuthController::class, 'logout']);
});

Application Testing

Open project to terminal and type the command to start development server

$ php artisan serve

Register API – http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/register

Method – POST

Body

{
"name": "Sanjay Kumar",
"email": "sanjay@gmail.com",
"password": "123456",
"password_confirmation": "123456"
}

Header

Content-Type:application/json
Accept:application/json

Login API – http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/login

Method – POST

Body

{
"email": "sanjay@gmail.com",
"password": "123456"
}

Header

Content-Type:application/json
Accept:application/json

User Profile API – http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/profile

Method – POST

Header

Content-Type:application/json
Accept:application/json
Authorization: Bearer <Token>

Logout API – http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/logout

Method – POST

Header

Content-Type:application/json
Accept:application/json
Authorization: Bearer <Token>

We hope this article helped you to learn about API Authentication using Laravel 8 Sanctum Tutorial in a very detailed way.

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