CodeIgniter 4 CRUD REST APIs Development

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CodeIgniter 4 is an open source framework of PHP. There are several libraries available in codeigniter 4 which makes application development very easy.

Inside this article we will see the concept of CodeIgniter 4 CRUD REST APIs development. We will discuss about each method of CRUD operation like Create, Read, Update & Delete Request in APIs.

Article is very interesting to learn and super easy to implement.

Learn more –

  • CodeIgniter 4 RESTful APIs with JWT Authentication, Click here.
  • REST API Development with Validation in CodeIgniter 4, Click here.
  • Basic Auth REST API Development in CodeIgniter 4, Click here.
  • Upload Image by REST API in CodeIgniter 4 Tutorial, Click here.

Note*: For this article, CodeIgniter v4.1 setup has been installed. May be when you are seeing, version will be updated. CodeIgniter 4.x still is in development mode.

Let’s get started.


Download & Install CodeIgniter 4 Setup

We need to download & install CodeIgniter 4 application setup to system. To set application we have multiple options to proceed.

Here are the following ways to download and install CodeIgniter 4 –

  • Manual Download
  • Composer Installation
  • Clone Github repository of CodeIgniter 4

Complete introduction of CodeIgniter 4 basics – Click here to go. After going through this article you can easily download & install setup.

Here is the command to install via composer –

$ composer create-project codeigniter4/appstarter codeigniter-4

Assuming you have successfully installed application into your local system.

Now, let’s configure database and application connectivity.


Turn Development Mode On

When we install CodeIgniter 4, we have env file at root. To use the environment variables means using variables at global scope we need to do env to .env

Open project in terminal

$ cp env .env

Above command will create a copy of env file to .env file. Now we are ready to use environment variables.

CodeIgniter starts up in production mode by default. Let’s do it in development mode. So that while working if we get any error then error will show up.

# CI_ENVIRONMENT = production

// Do it to 

CI_ENVIRONMENT = development

Now application is in development mode.


Create Database & Table in Application

To create a database, either we can create via Manual tool of PhpMyadmin or by means of a mysql command.

CREATE DATABASE codeigniter4_app;

Next, we need a table. That table will be responsible to store data. Let’s create table with some columns.

CREATE TABLE `members` (
 `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
 `name` varchar(120) DEFAULT NULL,
 `email` varchar(120) DEFAULT NULL,
 `mobile` varchar(45) DEFAULT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;

Successfully, we have created a database and a table.


Database Connectivity to Application

Open .env file from project root. Search for DATABASE. You should see the connection environment variables.

Let’s set the value for those to connect with database.

 
#--------------------------------------------------------------------
# DATABASE
#-------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 database.default.hostname = localhost
 database.default.database = codeigniter4_app
 database.default.username = root
 database.default.password = root
 database.default.DBDriver = MySQLi
   

Now, database successfully connected with application.


Create Model

Back to terminal and run this spark command to create a model file.

$ php spark make:model Member --suffix

It will create MemberModel.php file at /app/Models folder. Open file and write this complete code into it.

<?php

namespace App\Models;

use CodeIgniter\Model;

class MemberModel extends Model
{
	protected $DBGroup              = 'default';
	protected $table                = 'members';
	protected $primaryKey           = 'id';
	protected $useAutoIncrement     = true;
	protected $insertID             = 0;
	protected $returnType           = 'array';
	protected $useSoftDelete        = false;
	protected $protectFields        = true;
	protected $allowedFields        = [
		"name", 
		"email", 
		"mobile"
	];

	// Dates
	protected $useTimestamps        = false;
	protected $dateFormat           = 'datetime';
	protected $createdField         = 'created_at';
	protected $updatedField         = 'updated_at';
	protected $deletedField         = 'deleted_at';

	// Validation
	protected $validationRules      = [];
	protected $validationMessages   = [];
	protected $skipValidation       = false;
	protected $cleanValidationRules = true;

	// Callbacks
	protected $allowCallbacks       = true;
	protected $beforeInsert         = [];
	protected $afterInsert          = [];
	protected $beforeUpdate         = [];
	protected $afterUpdate          = [];
	protected $beforeFind           = [];
	protected $afterFind            = [];
	protected $beforeDelete         = [];
	protected $afterDelete          = [];
}

Create Controller

Again, Back to terminal and run this spark command to create a controller file.

$ php spark make:controller Member --restful

It will creates Member.php file at /app/Controllers folder.

Open Member.php and write this complete code into it.

<?php

namespace App\Controllers;
use App\Models\MemberModel;
use CodeIgniter\RESTful\ResourceController;

class Member extends ResourceController
{
	/**
	 * Return an array of resource objects, themselves in array format
	 *
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function index()
	{
		$model = new MemberModel();
      
        $data = $model->findAll();
      
        $response = [
            'status' => 200,
            'error' => null,
            'messages' => "Members Found",
            "data" => $data,
        ];
        return $this->respond($response);
	}

	/**
	 * Return the properties of a resource object
	 *
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function show($id = null)
	{
		$model = new MemberModel();
      
        $data = $model->where(['id' => $id])->first();
      
        if ($data) {
            $response = [
                'status' => 200,
                'error' => null,
                'messages' => "Member Found",
                "data" => $data,
            ];
            return $this->respond($response);
        } else {
            return $this->failNotFound('No Member Found with id ' . $id);
        }
	}

	/**
	 * Return a new resource object, with default properties
	 *
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function new()
	{
		//
	}

	/**
	 * Create a new resource object, from "posted" parameters
	 *
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function create()
	{
		$model = new MemberModel();

        $data = [
            'name' => $this->request->getVar('name'),
            'email' => $this->request->getVar('email'),
            'mobile' => $this->request->getVar('mobile'),
        ];

        $model->insert($data);

        $response = [
            'status' => 200,
            'error' => null,
            'messages' => "Member Saved",
        ];
      
        return $this->respondCreated($response);
	}

	/**
	 * Return the editable properties of a resource object
	 *
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function edit($id = null)
	{
		//
	}

	/**
	 * Add or update a model resource, from "posted" properties
	 *
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function update($id = null)
	{
		$model = new MemberModel();

        $data = [
            'name' => $this->request->getVar('name'),
            'email' => $this->request->getVar('email'),
            'mobile' => $this->request->getVar('mobile'),
        ];

        $model->update($id, $data);

        $response = [
            'status' => 200,
            'error' => null,
            'messages' => "Data Updated"
        ];
        return $this->respond($response);
	}

	/**
	 * Delete the designated resource object from the model
	 *
	 * @return mixed
	 */
	public function delete($id = null)
	{
		$model = new MemberModel();

        $data = $model->find($id);

        if ($data) {

            $model->delete($id);

            $response = [
                'status' => 200,
                'error' => null,
                'messages' => "Data Deleted",
            ];
            return $this->respondDeleted($response);
        } else {
            return $this->failNotFound('No Data Found with id ' . $id);
        }
	}
}

We have all methods available for CRUD operation.


Add Routes

Open Routes.php from /app/Config folder. Add these routes into it.

//...

$routes->resource('member');

Here, we have added a resource route which generates routes for CRUD operation.

We have added a single route but when we run spark command to list all application routes, you should see the complete list of routes.

Open terminal and run this command.

$ php spark routes

After running this command, you will see all routes generated by resource controller.


Application Testing

Start development server:

$ php spark serve

CREATE MEMBER API

URL: http://localhost:8080/member

METHOD: POST

HANDLER: \App\Controllers\Member::create

LIST MEMBER API

URL: http://localhost:8080/member

METHOD: GET

HANDLER: \App\Controllers\Member::index

SHOW SINGLE MEMBER API

URL: http://localhost:8080/member/{member_id}

METHOD: GET

HANDLER: \App\Controllers\Member::show/$1

UPDATE MEMBER API

URL: http://localhost:8080/member/{member_id}

METHOD: POST

Parameters – name, email, mobile, _method = PUT (Method Spoofing)

HANDLER: \App\Controllers\Member::update/$1

DELETE MEMBER API

URL: http://localhost:8080/member/{member_id}

METHOD: DELETE

HANDLER: \App\Controllers\Member::delete/$1

To learn about Method Spoofing in CodeIgniter 4, Click here.

We hope this article helped you to learn about CodeIgniter 4 REST APIs Development in a very detailed way.

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